CMEMS Arctic MFC: Validation of sea surface temperature

Validation based on data from drifting buoys

Validation of the CMEMS Arctic MFC results for sea surface temperature is performed using data from drifting buoys, which are compiled by the CMEMS SST TAC. New sets of buoy data are available weekly. The buoy data are available with a temporal resolution of 3 hours. These data are converted to daily mean values to conform with the TOPAZ model results. Note that the analysis is not restricted to night-time data.

Bias is defined as spatial averages of model values - observed values.

Buoy data are available from CERSAT-IFREMER in collaboration with Coriolis.

Results by bulletin date
January 2018
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2018
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22

March 2018
03-01
03-08
03-15
03-22
03-29

April 2018
04-05
04-12
04-19
04-26

May 2018
05-03
05-10
05-17
05-24
05-31

June 2018
06-07
06-14
06-21
06-28

July 2018
07-05
07-12
07-19
07-26

August 2018
08-02
08-09
08-16
08-23
08-30

September 2018
09-06
09-13
09-20
09-27

October 2018
10-04
10-11
10-18
10-25

November 2018
11-01
11-08
11-15
11-22
11-29

December 2018
12-06

January 2017
01-05
01-12
01-19
01-26

February 2017
02-02
02-09
02-16
02-23

March 2017
03-02
03-09
03-16
03-23
03-30

April 2017
04-06
04-13
04-20
04-27

May 2017
05-04
05-11
05-18
05-25

June 2017
06-01
06-08
06-15
06-22
06-29

July 2017
07-06
07-13
07-20
07-27

August 2017
08-03
08-10
08-17
08-24
08-31

September 2017
09-07
09-14
09-21
09-28

October 2017
10-05
10-12
10-19
10-26

November 2017
11-02
11-09
11-16
11-23
11-30

December 2017
12-07
12-14
12-21
12-28

January 2016
01-07
01-14
01-21
01-28

February 2016
02-04
02-11
02-18
02-25

March 2016
03-03
03-10
03-17
03-24
03-31

April 2016
04-07
04-14
04-21
04-28

May 2016
05-05
05-12
05-19
05-26

June 2016
06-02
06-09
06-16
06-23
06-30

July 2016
07-07
07-14
07-21
07-28

August 2016
08-04
08-11
08-18
08-25

September 2016
09-01
09-08
09-15
09-22
09-29

October 2016
10-06
10-13
10-20
10-27

November 2016
11-03
11-10
11-17
11-24

December 2016
12-01
12-08
12-15
12-22
12-29

January 2015
01-01
01-08
01-15
01-22
01-29

February 2015
02-05
02-12
02-19
02-26

March 2015
03-05
03-12
03-19
03-26

April 2015
04-02
04-09
04-16
04-23
04-30

May 2015
05-07
05-14
05-21
05-28

June 2015
06-04
06-11
06-18
06-25

July 2015
07-02
07-09
07-16
07-23
07-30

August 2015
08-06
08-13
08-20
08-27

September 2015
09-03
09-10
09-17
09-24

October 2015
10-01
10-08
10-15
10-22
10-29

November 2015
11-05
11-12
11-19
11-26

December 2015
12-03
12-10
12-17
12-24
12-31

January 2014
01-02
01-09
01-16
01-23
01-30

February 2014
02-06
02-13
02-20
02-27

March 2014
03-06
03-13
03-20
03-27

April 2014
04-03
04-10
04-17
04-24

May 2014
05-01
05-08
05-15
05-22
05-29

June 2014
06-05
06-12
06-19
06-26

July 2014
07-03
07-10
07-17
07-24
07-31

August 2014
08-07
08-14
08-21
08-28

September 2014
09-04
09-11
09-18
09-25

October 2014
10-02
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30

November 2014
11-06
11-13
11-20
11-27

December 2014
12-04
12-11
12-18
12-25

January 2013
01-03
01-10
01-17
01-24
01-31

February 2013
02-07
02-14
02-21
02-28

March 2013
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2013
04-04
04-11
04-18
04-25

May 2013
05-02
05-09
05-16
05-23
05-30

June 2013
06-06
06-13
06-20
06-27

July 2013
07-04
07-11
07-18
07-25

August 2013
08-01
08-08
08-15
08-22
08-29

September 2013
09-05
09-12
09-19
09-26

October 2013
10-03
10-10
10-17
10-24
10-31

November 2013
11-07
11-14
11-21
11-28

December 2013
12-05
12-12
12-19
12-26

January 2012
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2012
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22
02-29

March 2012
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2012
04-04
04-11
04-18
04-25

May 2012
05-02
05-09
05-16
05-23
05-30

June 2012
06-06
06-07
06-14
06-21
06-28

July 2012
07-05
07-12
07-19
07-26

August 2012
08-02
08-09
08-16
08-23
08-30

September 2012
09-06
09-13
09-20
09-27

October 2012
10-04
10-11
10-18
10-25

November 2012
11-01
11-08
11-15
11-22
11-29

December 2012
12-06
12-13
12-20
12-27

December 2011
12-28

Validation based on data from satellites

Validation of the CMEMS Arctic MFC results for sea surface temperature was initially performed using AATSR data from the Envisat satellite. However, communication with Envisat was discontinued on April 8. 2012. No AATSR-data is available after this date. (See http://envisat.esa.int/).

Late in May 2013 the project decided to use data from the AVHRR instrument (which flies on the Metop-A satellite) as a replacement for AATSR data. We have post-processed the validation using AVHRR data for all 2013 bulletins.

AVHRR data from Metop-A was stopped Feb. 23. 2016, after this date the data source is AVHRR from the Metop-B satellite.

Anomaly correlations are computed using a monthly climatology as reference. The climatology was set to the monthly averages of the OSTIA product (CMEMS product SST_GLO_SST_L4_REP_OBSERVATIONS_010_011), from the period 1985-2007.

Satellite data are available from IFREMER-Coriolis who operates the CMEMS SST TAC.

AATSR period:

Results by bulletin date
January 2012
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2012
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22
02-29

March 2012
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2012
04-04
04-11

December 2011
12-28

AVHRR period:

Results by bulletin date
January 2018
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2018
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22

March 2018
03-01
03-08
03-15
03-22
03-29

April 2018
04-05
04-12
04-19
04-26

May 2018
05-03
05-10
05-17
05-24
05-31

June 2018
06-07
06-14
06-21
06-28

July 2018
07-05
07-12
07-19
07-26

August 2018
08-02
08-09
08-16
08-23
08-30

September 2018
09-06
09-13
09-20
09-27

October 2018
10-04
10-11
10-18
10-25

November 2018
11-01
11-08
11-15
11-22
11-29

December 2018
12-06

January 2017
01-05
01-12
01-19
01-26

February 2017
02-02
02-09
02-16
02-23

March 2017
03-02
03-09
03-16
03-23
03-30

April 2017
04-06
04-13
04-20
04-27

May 2017
05-04
05-11
05-18
05-25

June 2017
06-01
06-08
06-15
06-22
06-29

July 2017
07-06
07-13
07-20
07-27

August 2017
08-03
08-10
08-17
08-24
08-31

September 2017
09-07
09-14
09-21
09-28

October 2017
10-05
10-12
10-19
10-26

November 2017
11-02
11-09
11-16
11-23
11-30

December 2017
12-07
12-14
12-21
12-28

January 2016
01-07
01-14
01-21
01-28

February 2016
02-04
02-11
02-18
02-25

March 2016
03-03
03-10
03-17
03-24
03-31

April 2016
04-07
04-14
04-21
04-28

May 2016
05-05
05-12
05-19
05-26

June 2016
06-02
06-09
06-16
06-23
06-30

July 2016
07-07
07-14
07-21
07-28

August 2016
08-04
08-11
08-18
08-25

September 2016
09-01
09-08
09-15
09-22
09-29

October 2016
10-06
10-13
10-20
10-27

November 2016
11-03
11-10
11-17
11-24

December 2016
12-01
12-08
12-15
12-22
12-29

January 2015
01-01
01-08
01-15
01-22
01-29

February 2015
02-05
02-12
02-19
02-26

March 2015
03-05
03-12
03-19
03-26

April 2015
04-02
04-09
04-16
04-23
04-30

May 2015
05-07
05-14
05-21
05-28

June 2015
06-04
06-11
06-18
06-25

July 2015
07-02
07-09
07-16
07-23
07-30

August 2015
08-06
08-13
08-20
08-27

September 2015
09-03
09-10
09-17
09-24

October 2015
10-01
10-08
10-15
10-22
10-29

November 2015
11-05
11-12
11-19
11-26

December 2015
12-03
12-10
12-17
12-24
12-31

January 2014
01-02
01-09
01-16
01-23
01-30

February 2014
02-06
02-13
02-20
02-27

March 2014
03-06
03-13
03-20
03-27

April 2014
04-03
04-10
04-17
04-24

May 2014
05-01
05-08
05-15
05-22
05-29

June 2014
06-05
06-12
06-19
06-26

July 2014
07-03
07-10
07-17
07-24
07-31

August 2014
08-07
08-14
08-21
08-28

September 2014
09-04
09-11
09-18
09-25

October 2014
10-02
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30

November 2014
11-06
11-13
11-20
11-27

December 2014
12-04
12-11
12-18
12-25

January 2013
01-03
01-10
01-17
01-24
01-31

February 2013
02-07
02-14
02-21
02-28

March 2013
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2013
04-04
04-11
04-18
04-25

May 2013
05-02
05-09
05-16
05-23
05-30

June 2013
06-06
06-13
06-20
06-27

July 2013
07-04
07-11
07-18
07-25

August 2013
08-01
08-08
08-15
08-22
08-29

September 2013
09-05
09-12
09-19
09-26

October 2013
10-03
10-10
10-17
10-24
10-31

November 2013
11-07
11-14
11-21
11-28

December 2013
12-05
12-12
12-19
12-26

Regions

The ocean circulation model used in CMEMS's Arctic MFC covers the Arctic Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent ocean regions. The northern part is depicted in the figure below. Validation of sea surface temperature from model results is performed for three domains:

  • an extended domain indicated by the blue, green and red regions in the figure
  • the Nordic Seas, shown as the green region
  • the Barents Sea, depicted in red

TOPAZ

The model results are produced with the TOPAZ ocean data assimilation model system. Presently, TOPAZ is run weekly with data assimillation one week prior to the bulletin date, followed by a one-week 100 member ensemble simulation ending on the bulletin date, and finally a 10 day deterministic forecast. TOPAZ was developed and is maintained by the Nansen Center.

For the validation of sea surface temperature, model results for ocean temperature at the 5 meter level are used.

TOPAZ results are available as aggregated, best estimates, and as a list of Bulletin dates with separate forecasts.